Ferdinand II (KING OF LEON) was born in 1137. He died on 22 January 1188 at the age of 51. Parents: Alfonso VII (the Emperor) RAIMUNDEZ (Count of Castile) and Berenguela BERENGAR of Barcelona.

Spouse: Urraca of Portugal . Urraca of Portugal and Ferdinand II (KING OF LEON) were married in 1165. The marriage was annulled in 1175. They had their marriage annulled in 1175. Children were: Alfonso IX (KING OF LEON).

Spouse: Teresa FERNANDEZ de Trava. Teresa FERNANDEZ de Trava and Ferdinand II (KING OF LEON) were married before 7 October 1178.

Spouse: Urraca LOPEZ de Haro. Urraca LOPEZ de Haro and Ferdinand II (KING OF LEON) were married in 1187.


St. Ferdinand III (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON)1 was born in 1199. He died on 30 May 1252 at the age of 53. Ferdinand III permanently united the Kingdom of Castile with the Kingdom of Leon. His mother, Berenguela of Castile, was the sister of King Henry I of Castile. When Henry I died in 1217, the right of succession fell to Berenguela. She, however, renounced that right in favor of her son, Ferdinand. Thus, Ferdinand III became King of Castile in 1217 and upon the death of his own father in 1230 became King of Leon. Despite much opposition, he proceeded to unite the two Kingdoms into one, which became known as the Kingdom of Castile and Leon. Ferdinand III heeded his mother's advice and married Beatrice, a most virtuous princesses of that time. Their marriage produced six princes and one princess.

Ferdinand III was responsible for almost completing the reconquest of Spain, having reclaimed vast amounts of territory from the Moors. He captured Cordoba in 1236, occupied Murcia in 1243, took Jaen in 1246, captured Seville in 1248, and reduced the Kingdom of Granada to a vassal state. He reestablished Catholic worship everywhere and built churches and founded monasteries. He converted the great mosques of Cordoba and Seville into cathedrals, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and founded the University of Salamanca. The Catholic Encyclopedia has this to say about Ferdinand III and his conduct during the military campaigns: "He watched over the conduct of his soldiers, confiding more in their virtue than in their valor, fasted strictly himself, wore a rough hairshirt, and often spent his nights in prayer, especially before battles. Amid the tumult of the camp he lived like a religious in the cloister. The glory of the Church and the happiness of his people were the two guiding motives of his life".

After his reign, all that remained for the complete reconquest of Spain was the defeat of Granada. He was planning an expedition to Morocco when he died in 1252 and was buried in the cathedral at Seville, clothed as he had requested in the habit of the Third Order of St. Francis. Many miracles took place at his tomb and his body reportedly remains incorrupt. He was canonized in 1671; his feast day is May 30. Ferdinand III was succeeded as King by his son, Alfonso X. Parents: Alfonso IX (KING OF LEON) and Berenguela of Castile .

Spouse: Beatrice (Elizabeth) VON HOHENSTAUFEN of Swabia. Beatrice (Elizabeth) VON HOHENSTAUFEN of Swabia and St. Ferdinand III (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) were married on 30 November 1219. Children were: Alfonso X (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON).


Ferdinand IV (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) was born on 6 December 1285. He died on 7 December 1312 at the age of 27. Ferdinand IV became King in 1295 at the age of 10; his mother served as regent during his minority. He led an unsuccessful campaign to capture Algeciras from the Moors but was successful in conquering Gibraltar in 1309, with the help of Aragon. He died at the age of 27 and was succeeded by his son Alfonso XI. Parents: Sancho IV (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) and Maria de MOLINA.

Spouse: Constanza of Portugal . Constanza of Portugal and Ferdinand IV (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON)3 were married in 1302. Children were: Leonor of Castile , Constanza of Castile , Alfonso XI (King of Castile and Leon).


Fernando2 was born (date unknown). Parents: Ferdinand and Blanche of France .

Children were: Blanca .


Fernando Alfonso (sn de Ledesma) was born in 1336. Parents: Alfonso XI (King of Castile and Leon) and Leonora de Guzman .


Fernando of Castile was born in 1332. Parents: Alfonso XI (King of Castile and Leon) and Maria of Portugal .


Frederick I (Barbarossa) (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR) was born in 1122. He died on 10 June 1190 at the age of 68. He drowned in the River Calycandus, Cilicia. Also known as Frederick Barbarossa, he was a Duke of Swabia and King of Germany prior to becoming Holy Roman Emperor. Parents: Frederick II HOHENSTAUFEN and Judith of Bavaria .

Spouse: Adelheid von VOHBURG. Adelheid von VOHBURG and Frederick I (Barbarossa) (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR)3 were married in 1147. They were divorced in 1153.

Spouse: Beatrix of Burgundy . Beatrix of Burgundy and Frederick I (Barbarossa) (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR)3 were married on 10 June 1156. Children were: Henry VI HOHENSTAUFENS of Sicily (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR), Philip HOHENSTAUFEN of Swabia (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR).


Gerberga was born (date unknown).

Spouse: Adalbert of Italy (KING OF ITALY). Gerberga and Adalbert of Italy (KING OF ITALY) were married. Children were: Othon-Guillaume de Macon .


Gerberga1 was born (date unknown). Parents: Henry I the Fowler (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR) and St. Matilda of Ringelheim .


Geva was born (date unknown).

Spouse: Wittekind (Widukind) of the Saxons (KING OF THE SAXONS). Geva and Wittekind (Widukind) of the Saxons (KING OF THE SAXONS) were married. Children were: Wigebart of Saxony (Duke of Saxony).


Gisela of Friaul was born (date unknown).

Spouse: Adalbert of Ivrea (Count & Margrave of Ivrea). Gisela of Friaul and Adalbert of Ivrea (Count & Margrave of Ivrea) were married.


Gorka was born (date unknown).

Spouse: Ziemonislaw of Poland (Duke of Poland). Gorka and Ziemonislaw of Poland (Duke of Poland) were married. Children were: Mieczislaw (Burislaf) I of Poland (Duke of Poland).


Guifre (Wilfred) the Hairy (Count of Barcelona) died in 897. He was killed while fighting the Moors. Parents: Sunifred I of Urgell (Count of Barcelona) and _____ (mother of Guifre the Hairy).

Spouse: _____ (mother of Sunyer of Barcelona). Children were: Sunyer of Barcelona .


Hatheburg was born (date unknown).

Spouse: Henry I the Fowler (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR). Hatheburg and Henry I the Fowler (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR) were married in 906. Hatheburg was a young widow when she married Henry I the Fowler; their marriage was subsequently declared invalid.


Hedwig1 was born (date unknown). Parents: Henry I the Fowler (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR) and St. Matilda of Ringelheim .


Hedwige was born (date unknown). One source (Stammtafeln) believes she was the daughter of Henry, Margrave of Mark (died 886) and not Arnulf. Parents: Arnulf of Carinthia (KING OF GERMANY) and Oda of Bavaria .

Spouse: Otto of Saxony (Duke of Saxony). Hedwige and Otto of Saxony (Duke of Saxony) were married about 869. Children were: Henry I the Fowler (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR).


Heilwig was born about 931. She died on 12 November.

Spouse: Hermann of Palatine . Heilwig and Hermann of Palatine were married. Children were: Ezzo of Palatine (Count Palatine).


Henry (Duke of Bavaria)1 was born (date unknown). Parents: Henry I the Fowler (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR) and St. Matilda of Ringelheim .


Henry I the Fowler (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR) was born about 876. He died on 2 June 936 at the age of 60. Parents: Otto of Saxony (Duke of Saxony) and Hedwige .

Spouse: Hatheburg . Hatheburg and Henry I the Fowler (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR) were married in 906. Hatheburg was a young widow when she married Henry I the Fowler; their marriage was subsequently declared invalid.

Spouse: St. Matilda of Ringelheim . St. Matilda of Ringelheim and Henry I the Fowler (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR) were married in 909. Children were: Henry (Duke of Bavaria), Otto I the Great, King of Germany (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR), St. Bruno (Archbishop of Cologne), Gerberga , Hedwig .


Henry II of Castile (KING OF CASTILE) was born about 1333. He died on 30 May 1379 at the age of 46. Also known as Enrique (or Henry) of Trastamara, he was the illegitimate son of King Alfonso XI, who was succeeded after he died in 1350 by his legitimate son, Peter the Cruel. Henry II took part in several revolts against his half-brother, but they were all unsuccessful. Henry II sought help from Du Guesclin and Peter IV of Aragon and finally succeeded in removing Peter the Cruel from the throne in 1366. Peter the Cruel responded by forming an alliance with England and, with the aid of Edward the Black Prince, defeated Henry II in battle at Najera in 1367. However, Edward the Black Prince had to depart to participate in the French campaign and, after he departed, Henry II attacked and killed Peter the Cruel in battle at Montiel in 1369. Henry II was able to retain the throne despite opposition from King Ferdinand I of Portugal and John of Gaunt. John of Gaunt was the brother of Edward the Black Prince and, in 1371, married Constance of Castile, the daughter of Peter the Cruel (perhaps marriage was the price Constance paid for the help of John of Gaunt, who undoubtedly used it make his own claim to Castile). Henry II successfuly resisted all opposition and remained King until his death in 1379; he was succeeded by his son, John I of Castile. Parents: Alfonso XI (King of Castile and Leon) and Leonora de Guzman .

Spouse: Juana Manuel de Castilla (sna de Villena). Juana Manuel de Castilla (sna de Villena) and Henry II of Castile (KING OF CASTILE)3 were married on 27 July 1350. Children were: John I of Castile , Leonor of Castile (Infanta of Castile), Juana of Castile (Infanta of Castile).

Spouse: Elvira Iniquez DE LA VEGA. Children were: Alfonso ENRIQUEZ.


Henry III (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) was born in 1379. He was born on 4 October 1379. He died in 1406 at the age of 27. Henry III became King of Castile and Leon in 1390 upon the death of his father, John I. His father arranged his marriage to Catherine, the daughter of John of Gaunt, as a means to end the conflict between the two men. Henry III was only 9 years old when he was married, and became King at the age of 11. One of his most notable achievements was his push to colonize the Canary Islands. Upon his death in 1406 at the age of 27, he was succeeded by his son John II. Parents: John I of Castile and Leonor of Aragon .

Spouse: Lady Katherine PLANTAGENET of Lancaster. Lady Katherine PLANTAGENET of Lancaster and Henry III (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) were married in 1388. They were married. Children were: John II of Castille .


Henry IV was born on 4 January 1425. He died in 1474 at the age of 49. He is sometimes referred to as Henry IV the Impotent. Parents: John II of Castille and Maria of Aragon .

Spouse: Juana of Portugal . Juana of Portugal and Henry IV were married. Children were: Juana la Beltraneja .


King Henry XIII (KING OF ENGLAND)4 was born (date unknown).

Spouse: Queen Catherine of Aragon (QUEEN OF ENGLAND). Queen Catherine of Aragon (QUEEN OF ENGLAND) and King Henry XIII (KING OF ENGLAND) were married.


Hermann of Palatine was born about 929. He died after 16 July 996 at the age of 67.

Spouse: Heilwig . Heilwig and Hermann of Palatine were married. Children were: Ezzo of Palatine (Count Palatine).


Hildegarde of Vinzgau was born in 758.

Spouse: Charlemagne (EMPEROR OF THE WEST). Hildegarde of Vinzgau and Charlemagne (EMPEROR OF THE WEST) were married in 771. Children were: Louis I the Pious of Aquitaine (KING OF FRANCE).


Himiltude was born (date unknown).

Spouse: Charlemagne (EMPEROR OF THE WEST). Himiltude and Charlemagne (EMPEROR OF THE WEST) were married about 768.


Hugh of Provence1 was born (date unknown).

Spouse: _____ ______ (mother of Lothaire). _____ ______ (mother of Lothaire) and Hugh of Provence were married. Children were: Lothaire .


Infante Juan4 was born on 30 June 1478. He died in 1497 at the age of 19. "The Prince who died of love" Parents: Ferdinand (KING OF SPAIN) and Isabella of Castille (QUEEN OF SPAIN).


Irene of Byzantium was born in 1145.

Spouse: Philip HOHENSTAUFEN of Swabia (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR). Irene of Byzantium and Philip HOHENSTAUFEN of Swabia (HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR)3 were married on 25 May 1197. Children were: Beatrice (Elizabeth) VON HOHENSTAUFEN of Swabia.


Irmengard of Hesbain was born about 778.

Spouse: Louis I the Pious of Aquitaine (KING OF FRANCE). Irmengard of Hesbain and Louis I the Pious of Aquitaine (KING OF FRANCE) were married in 798. Children were: Louis II, the German (KING OF EAST FRANKS).


Isabel was born about 1265. Parents: Alfonso X (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) and Yolanda (Violante) of Aragon .


Isabel de Limoges was born in 1283. Parents: Sancho IV (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) and Maria de MOLINA.


Isabel of Aragon (St. Elizabeth of Portugal)3 was born in 1271. She died on 4 July 1336 at the age of 65. Also known as the "Peacemaker", she was named after her great-aunt, Elizabeth of Hungary. She was educated and lived very piously, and was married at a young age. Her husband's court was very corrupt, but Elizabeth did her best to win her husband's affections, while still pursuing her religious beliefs, being especially devoted to the poor and sick. Elizabeth finally, through prayer and unfailing sweetness, succeeded in reforming her husband, but by then he was late in life. Their son, Alfonso, so resented the favors the King showed to his illegitimate sons that, in 1323, he declared war against his father. Elizabeth rode between the two opposing armies and succeeded in reconciling her husband and son. After her husband died in 1325, she retired to a convent of Poor Clares which she had founded at Coimbra. She took the Franciscan Tertiary habit, devoting the rest of her life to the poor and sick. However, she had to act as peacemaker once more when, in 1336, her son Alfonso IV, the new King of Portugal, marched against the King of Castile, to whom he had married his daughter Maria, and who had neglected and mis-treated her. She went to Estremoz where the two opposing armies were fighting, stopped the fighting and arranged a peace between the two kingdoms. This great effort brought on her final illness, and she died of a fever shortly afterward. She is interred at the convent at Coimbre. She was canonized by Pope Urban VIII in 1625; her feast day is July 8. Parents: Pedro III (KING OF ARAGON) and Constantia .

Spouse: Denis the Laborer (KING OF PORTUGAL & ALGARVE). Isabel of Aragon (St. Elizabeth of Portugal) and Denis the Laborer (KING OF PORTUGAL & ALGARVE) were married. Children were: Constanza of Portugal , Alfonso IV "O Osado" (KING OF PORTUGAL & ALGARVE).


Isabella of Asturias was born on 2 October 1470. Parents: Ferdinand (KING OF SPAIN) and Isabella of Castille (QUEEN OF SPAIN).


Isabella of Castille (QUEEN OF SPAIN) was born on 22 April 1451.9 She died on 26 November 1504 at the age of 53.7 Parents: John II of Castille and Isabella of Portugal .

Spouse: Ferdinand (KING OF SPAIN). Isabella of Castille (QUEEN OF SPAIN) and Ferdinand (KING OF SPAIN) were married on 19 October 1469.7 Children were: Isabella of Asturias , Infante Juan , Juana (The Mad), Mary , Queen Catherine of Aragon (QUEEN OF ENGLAND).


Isabella of Portugal was born in 1428. She died on 15 August 1496 at the age of 68. Parents: Joao of Portugal and Isabella de BRAGANCA.

Spouse: John II of Castille . Isabella of Portugal and John II of Castille were married in August 1447. Children were: Isabella of Castille (QUEEN OF SPAIN), Alfonso of the Asturias .


Jaime (Juan) of Castile (sn de los Cameros) was born before 11 August 1268. Parents: Alfonso X (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) and Yolanda (Violante) of Aragon .


Jaime I the Conqueror (KING OF ARAGON) was born in 1208. He died in 1276 at the age of 68. Parents: Pedro II the Catholic (KING OF ARAGON) and Maria of Montepellier .

Spouse: Leonor of Castile . Leonor of Castile and Jaime I the Conqueror (KING OF ARAGON) were married on 6 February 1221. They were divorced in 1229.

Spouse: Yolande (Violante) of Hungary . Yolande (Violante) of Hungary and Jaime I the Conqueror (KING OF ARAGON) were married. Children were: Yolanda (Violante) of Aragon .


Queen Joanna Enriquez was born in 1425. She died on 13 February 1468 at the age of 43. Her father was Fadrique Enriquez, Count of Malgar y Rueda.

Spouse: John II of Aragon (KING OF ARAGON & NAVARRO). Queen Joanna Enriquez and John II of Aragon (KING OF ARAGON & NAVARRO)8 were married on 1 April 1444. Children were: Ferdinand (KING OF SPAIN), Juana of Aragon , Maria of Aragon (Infanta of Aragon).


Joao of Portugal was born on 13 January 1400.

Spouse: Isabella de BRAGANCA. Isabella de BRAGANCA and Joao of Portugal were married. Children were: Isabella of Portugal .


John I of Castile was born on 24 August 1358. He died on 9 October 1390 at the age of 32. John I succeeded his father, Henry II, as King of Castile and Leon in 1379. He tried to unite the Castilian and Portuguese crowns but was twice defeated in battle by the Portuguese. He was more successful in defending his crown when it was threatened by John of Gaunt, who was claiming the throne through his marriage to Constance, daughter of Peter the Cruel who had been killed and removed as King by Henry II, the father of John I. The power struggle was finally ended when John I married his 9-year old son Henry to Catherine, the daughter of John of Gaunt. Henry succeeded him as King of Castile and Leon and became known as Henry III. Parents: Henry II of Castile (KING OF CASTILE) and Juana Manuel de Castilla (sna de Villena).

Spouse: Leonor of Aragon . Leonor of Aragon and John I of Castile were married on 18 June 1375. Children were: Henry III (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON), Ferdinand I (KING OF ARAGON & SICILY).

Spouse: Beatriz of Portugal (QUEEN OF PORTUGAL). Beatriz of Portugal (QUEEN OF PORTUGAL) and John I of Castile were married in May 1383.


John II of Aragon (KING OF ARAGON & NAVARRO) was born on 29 June 1398. He died on 19 January 1479 at the age of 80. Also known as John II of Trastamara, he became King of Navarre in 1425 after marrying Blanche, the heiress of the Kingdom of Navarre. After his wife died in 1442, Navarre was ruled by their son Charles of Viana. Soon, however, a power struggle developed between father and son, leading to civil war in Navarre. Charles escaped to Italy leaving his father John II to rule Navarre.

He succeeded his brother Alfonso V in 1458 and became King of Aragon and Sicily, and ruled Catalonia as the Count of Barcelona. An uprising in Catalonia in 1461 forced John II to recognize Charles as his heir; however, Charles died that very same year. This led to the expulsion of John II from Catalonia, and Rene of Anjou was chosen to be Count of Barcelona. In 1472, John II succeeded in pacifying and reclaiming Catalonia.

In 1468, John II passed the Kingdom of Sicily to his son Ferdinand II. Upon the death of John II in 1479, Ferdinand II also inherited the Kingdom of Aragon and Catalonia. (Ferdinand II was also known as Ferdinand the Catholic and later became King Ferdinand V of Castille after marrying Queen Isabella of Castille. The Kingdom of Navarre, upon the death of John II, passed through his daughter Leonor to the house of Foix, into which she had married. Parents: Ferdinand I (KING OF ARAGON & SICILY) and Leonor Urrac de Castilla de Albuquerque.

Spouse: Blanche of Navarre . Blanche of Navarre and John II of Aragon (KING OF ARAGON & NAVARRO) were married on 18 January 1420. Children were: Carlos of Viana , Juana of Aragon (Infanta of Aragon), Blanca of Aragon , Eleanor of Navarre .

Spouse: Queen Joanna Enriquez . Queen Joanna Enriquez and John II of Aragon (KING OF ARAGON & NAVARRO)8 were married on 1 April 1444. Children were: Ferdinand (KING OF SPAIN), Juana of Aragon , Maria of Aragon (Infanta of Aragon).


John II of Castille was born on 6 March 1405. He died on 20 July 1454 at the age of 49. Parents: Henry III (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) and Lady Katherine PLANTAGENET of Lancaster.

Spouse: Maria of Aragon . Maria of Aragon and John II of Castille were married on 4 August 1420. Children were: Catalina of the Asturias , Leonor of the Asturias , Henry IV , Maria of Castile .

Spouse: Isabella of Portugal . Isabella of Portugal and John II of Castille were married in August 1447. Children were: Isabella of Castille (QUEEN OF SPAIN), Alfonso of the Asturias .


John of Gaunt was born in 1340. He died in 1399 at the age of 59. John of Gaunt married Blanche, the heiress of Lancaster, in 1359 and thus became Earl of Lancaster in 1361 and Duke of Lancaster in 1362. His wife's holdings made him one of the wealthiest men in England, and enabled him to become one of England's most influential nobles. He served under his brother, Edward the Black Prince, in the Hundred Years War and in the campaign of help Peter the Cruel of Castile in 1367.

After his first wife died, John of Gaunt, married Constance of Castile, the daughter of Peter the Cruel, in 1371. Peter the Cruel had been killed by his half-brother, Henry II, in 1369. Through his marriage to Constance, John of Gaunt was able to make a claim to the throne of Castile. His brother, Edward the Black Prince, fell ill during the French campaign of 1370-71 and John of Gaunt left to take chief command, but accomplished little in that campaign. After a truce was called in 1375, John of Gaunt returned to England and allied himself with the corrupt court party led by Alice Perrers, the mistress of his aging father, Edward III. In effect, John of Gaunt actually ruled England for a short time, but his party was removed from power by the Good Parliament in 1376. He soon restored his power and influence and became one of the most powerful men in the goverment, devoting himself primarily to military matters.

In 1386, he allied himself with the King of Portugal, John I, who had married one of John of Gaunt's daughters, and led an expedition against John I of Castile in an attempt to make good his claim to the Castilian throne. His expediition was unsuccessful, but John of Gaunt and John I of Castile reached a truce in 1388 by agreeing to the marriage of John of Gaunt's daughter, Catherine, with Henry III, the 9-year old son of John I of Castile.

John of Gaunt returned to England in 1389 where he was made Duke of Aquitaine. In 1396, he married Catherine Swynford, who had been his mistress for many years. He had his illegitimate children by her, under the name of Beaufort, declared legitimate. He died in 1399, soon after his eldest son, the Duke of Hereford, had been exiled by the King. (The Duke of Hereford later became Henry IV, first of the royal line of Lancaster.) Parents: Edward III of England and _____ (spouse of Edward III).

Spouse: Blanche of Lancaster . Blanche of Lancaster and John of Gaunt were married in 1359.

Spouse: Constance of Castile . Constance of Castile and John of Gaunt were married in 1371. Children were: Lady Katherine PLANTAGENET of Lancaster.

Spouse: Catherine SWYNFORD. Catherine SWYNFORD and John of Gaunt were married in 1396.


Juan de Castile (sn de Badajoz) was born in 1341. Parents: Alfonso XI (King of Castile and Leon) and Leonora de Guzman .


Juan of Castile (Infant of Castile) was born before April 1264. Parents: Alfonso X (KING OF CASTILE AND LEON) and Yolanda (Violante) of Aragon .


Juana (The Mad)4 was born on 6 November 1479. She died in 1555 at the age of 76. Parents: Ferdinand (KING OF SPAIN) and Isabella of Castille (QUEEN OF SPAIN).

Spouse: Phillip I (The Beautiful). Juana (The Mad) and Phillip I (The Beautiful) were married. Children were: KING Charles I (KING OF SPAIN).


Juana Alfonsa was born (date unknown). Parents: Alfonso XI (King of Castile and Leon) and Leonora de Guzman .


Juana de Castro was born (date unknown).

Spouse: Peter the Cruel . Juana de Castro and Peter the Cruel were married in 1354. There is some confusion here as to the spouses and dates of marriage.


Juana la Beltraneja was born in 1462. She died in 1530 at the age of 68. Juana was widely believed to have been fathered by Beltran de la Cueva, the court favorite. For that reason, she was usually referred to as Juana la Beltraneja. The Cortes of Castile, however, recognized her as the legitimate heiress to the throne. Castilian nobles, however, refused to recognize Juana as the rightful heiress and forced Henry IV to designate his half-brother, Alfonso, as his successor. Alfonso died in 1468 and Henry IV then designated his half-sister Isabella to be his successor. When Isabella married Ferdinand II of Aragon, Henry IV changed his mind and in 1470 again recognized Juana as his heir. However, when Henry IV died in 1474, Isabella took the opportunity to seize the throne. Juana had her own supporters and they arranged for her marriage to Alfonso V of Portugal, and thus obtained his help to try to regain the throne. Isabella defeated Alfonso V in a battle at Toro in 1476, ending the threat to her rule. Isabella received recognition as Queen of Castille in 1479. And, Juana retired to a convent in Portugal. Parents: Henry IV and Juana of Portugal .